For floppy disks, the available flux dumpers/reader solutions have multiplied drastically over the years.
I think that currently the best synopsis of every available dumper is by ArchiveTeam: https://wiki.archiveteam.org/index.php/Rescuing_Floppy_Disks
Some solutions that were previously Amiga- or Atari- or Apple-specific have expanded towards handling PC drives/formats, plus other solutions have become available.
Personally, I usually don't recommend using KryoFlux, their software license has had some significant issues with regards to the preservation-minded, especially for commercial users. (See the above wiki page for more on this.)
And I'd keep an eye on Pauline and Applesauce in the coming years.
Again, you only need flux readers for copy protected disks, which doesn't get too crazy in the PC scene, but flux readers can be quite useful when dealing with data recovery issues.
For optical drives, the issue becomes much more significant especially if you want to archive copy-protected discs, or weird non-PC formats.
No "flux level readers" exist currently for optical media - most drives do not provide access to the raw data, so everything gets interpreted by the drive's controller and its firmware, then the drivers for the OS, then the OS - or something like that. Drives were generally designed to try to make it somewhat impossible. I am aware of several attempts to hack up specific drives to attempt to get access to raw data, as well as some deeper CD drive emulators, but for the most part, nothing's ready for prime time yet.
In theory, right now, one could hack up an old laserdisc player that can read audio CDs to read out CD-ROMs, and use the Domesday Duplicator (https://www.domesday86.com/?page_id=978 ) to read out the data, but no one's tried yet. Audio dumping is proven possible though this way - definitely overkill though for audio CDs, which are typically unprotected.
ArchiveTeam has a rather short synopsis: https://wiki.archiveteam.org/index.php/Rescui … g_optical_media
Redump.org has a quite nice tutorial set if you want to get crazy (especially if you want to understand what I am getting at further in my post here): http://wiki.redump.org/index.php?title=Dumping_Guides
Unprotected CD-ROMs, you can normally just rip to ISO or BIN/CUE or something, you usually don't need any weird image formats or special drives. ISO doesn't handle Redbook audio though, IIRC, so you need to use another format.
Sarami's DiscImageCreator has been pretty nice, but that whole scene surrounding it tends to focus on the fact that you need specific drives with special vendor-specific drive read codes when reading certain non-PC formats, like Plextor optical drives, rather than seeking to solve the problem of needing these very specific drives, which can be in short supply. increasingly as the years go on.
I call this sort of "you need a Plextor" way of thinking "voodoo" or witchcraft, and I am all about ending the days of voodoo! People should instead seek to gain control of the drives, so that as much as possible can be dumped with the drive you own!
That's why I'm a firm supporter of the Aaru Data Preservation Suite (formerly known as DiscImageChef): https://aaru.app/ / https://github.com/aaru-dps/Aaru/
(I only wish I could spend more time helping out!)
It has the goal of doing everything that DiscImageCreator can do - and then some. (If I can get an open-source complete replacement for IsoBuster finally after all these years, I'll be one happy dude!)
Aaru can dump anything ATA, IDE, SCSI, USB-MSC, USB-UAS, PCMCIA-ATA, CompactFlash, SecureDigital, MultiMediaCard, and whatnot 😀 so it can even dump floppies with a USB drive if that fulfills your needs.
A one-woman show, claunia has set her project's scope as wide as possible, impressively including on-game-console disc reading/dumping, broad portability, and many other specialist features. Mostly so far it excels at disc image creation and file extraction, but someday will support image mounting and image modification for every image format it supports, which is considerable, and even more (currently) than DiscImageCreator.
Some of the weirder things that currently only Aaru can do:
- the only FAT extractor that supports Sharp X68000 filenames and OS/2 extended attributes
- the only implementation of the LisaFS
- the most complete ISO9660/HS/CDi implementation ever written 😀
- and, not sure, but maybe also the only one able to extract from Apricot floppies and HDDs (Winchesters 😀 )
Whether she will reach the finish line, IDK. But her goal is to get such control over optical drives that acquiring Plextor drives to dump specific kinds of discs would be a thing of the past. She's basically already there for some discs. (At the moment, you basically need to trade out Plextor drives for LibreDrive with Aaru, but there's a lot more compatible LibreDrives out there... I suspect this will only expand.)
Support for her own image format (*.aaruf, *.aif if you're using an older version) is still quite limited, and mostly extends to Aaru itself, SabreTools Media Preservation Frontend (MPF) (a frontend), and GamePres.org's RedBookPlayer (https://github.com/aaru-dps/RedBookPlayer ). There's been a little chatter with steering MAME's CHD image format in the direction of Aaru's image format (public: https://github.com/mamedev/mame/issues/7402 , cannot comment on our private chatter) but progress has been slow.
I think I'll give Aaru its own thread on VOGONS when version 5.3 comes out (pretty soon now), so that you guys can all start hammering on it, but claunia's way too busy to handle user support herself here... (as am I...)
 I finally gave it a release announcement: Aaru 5.3.0 LTS - Aaru Data Preservation Suite (released 2021-10-01)
BTW, in chatting with claunia (author of Aaru) tonight, BTW, she had this to comment:
AeonG wrote on 2021-09-17, 10:28:
Magic ISO (which I personally use)
Magic ISO NONONONONONONONO NEVER.
when we launch Aaru 5.3 I'll do a blog post including many of the failures of MagicISO and PowerISO
ntalaec wrote on 2021-09-17, 13:13:
For floppy disks, if you don't have a KryoFlux and the floppy doesn't have any kind of protection, use any software (like WinImage) that dumps in RAW format (IMG/IMA)
This is known to corrupt images.
ntalaec wrote on 2021-09-17, 13:13:
If you don't have any of the recommended models, you could use Alcohol 120%. In Alcohol 120% don't use ISO or CUE/BIN formats, use Alcohol MDS/MDF format instead.
Alcohol 120% will make wrong images of any DVD that's not -ROM
I suspect that's all I'll have time to pass on for now though! 😀
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