I can't get the newest one to work, and I don't know exactly for what reason.
EDIT: IT WORKED!
The reason why it didn't work the past times was because I was unable to install Microsoft C++ 2015 runtimes; the installation always freezed at Windows7_MSU_x64 (or x86 respectively) and then said the installation failed, with the error code:
From what I guessed, that MSU_x64 or MSU_x86 responds to a needed update that apparently won't be downloaded unless you update Windows Update (how ironic!) with the Update Agent here. After that, you may want to check on Windows Update and select all important updates as well as all the optional ones (besides the language packs). To me, at first it looked like it wasn't updating anything (it always said 0 kB downloaded) but when I turned off the computer, it installed a pack of new updates, after which I was eventually able to properly install the Microsoft C++ 2015 runtimes.