Just FYI, original capacitors were tantalum, not standard electrolytic ones.
It might work, but it might not, or it might be unstable. While both tantalum and electrolytic are both polarized, their electric characteristics are different so there might be issues.
Just googled a bit and found this:
Benefits of Tantalums vs Electrolytics:
- Tantalums can work at much higher frequencies.
- Tantalums have low ESLs measured in nanohenries.
- Tantalums have low ESRs.
- Tantalums have low leakage current.
- Tantalums pack lots of uf into a small package.
- Tantalums can last longer than electrolytics.
Problems with Tantalums:
- Don't tolerate high reverse voltages well.
- Need to be voltage overrated for safety.
- Very unforgiving. Explode instantly when voltage rating is exceeded.
- Don't sound as good for audio as the best electrolytics.
- More expensive than electrolytics.
How sure are you with regards to your power supply? Maybe it "pushed" a bit of higher voltage and tantalums went boom because of that?
As for voltage, technically higher voltage rating has effect on capacitance.
For example 16V 10uF capacitor has 10uF capacity at 16V, 50V 10uF also has 10uF capacity at 50V, but at 16V it might be 9 or 11 uF (don't remember if it goes higher or lower), but in practice that that can easily fall under regular capacity tolerance so in effect no problem. It might be an issue if you go waaaay up and use for example 200V, then there could be different ESR when compared to 16V. But bigger issue would be fitting it there as it would be significantly physically bigger 😀.